The Underfunded Pension: States Take Action

State and local governments with significant pension funding shortfalls are coming under increased political pressure due to new transparency rules in accounting. My colleague Joe Rosenblum examines their options.

Last week, we argued here that new rules adopted by the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) will bring municipal issuers to the bargaining table, rather than to bankruptcy. We’ve already seen evidence of this turn in the tide.

Growing voter dissatisfaction with overly generous public-sector benefits has encouraged certain states to take steps to reduce their future payments, and we expect others to follow. In some states, such as Illinois, the legislature has made adjustments despite vehement union opposition. In California, the governor and several of the state’s labor unions have reached tentative labor agreements that raise employee pension contributions, mandate one day of unpaid leave per month (effectively a 5% cut in pay), and roll back pension benefits to pre-1999 levels for new hires.

Other states have increased employee contributions to their plans, raised the retirement age and increased vesting requirements. In 2010, five state legislatures passed benefit reductions or increased employee contributions; 10 other states did both. For example, New York created a fifth pension tier for new employees that requires them to contribute 3% of their annual compensation to fund their pensions, and the state also extended the retirement age. It is estimated that this change will save New York $48 billion over the next 30 years.

While altering new-hire retirement benefits doesn’t reduce current benefit payments, the adjustments do have a small but immediate effect on the overall pension liability. Of course, given that most of the plans in place for current workers have some legal protection, states will have to work through the “bulge” of existing participants until the employees under newer, less expensive plans make up a greater part of the state’s public-sector workforce.

Some states have even begun reducing the current levels of benefits, which in turn reduces the size of the bulge of the workers associated with the older plans. Notably, Colorado, New Jersey, Minnesota and South Dakota have passed changes to cost-of-living adjustments for current retirees, and the courts have upheld the changes (although the Colorado and Minnesota lower court decisions are on appeal). Other states are monitoring these developments, as current benefits were considered untouchable until recently.

In addition, many states have pushed for a switch from defined benefit to defined contribution plans to achieve cost savings. Clearly, moving to a defined contribution plan quickly and dramatically reduces retirement costs.

Our analysis indicates that the vast majority of states’ pension funds will remain healthy long enough for them to make the necessary adjustments. But although underfunded pension systems are a long-term problem, it’s one that requires attention soon: with each passing year, the long term becomes shorter for those states and localities with weaker pension systems.

The views expressed herein do not constitute research, investment advice or trade recommendations and do not necessarily represent the views of all AllianceBernstein portfolio-management teams.

Douglas J. Peebles

Chief Investment Officer and Head—AllianceBernstein Fixed Income
Douglas J. Peebles joined the firm in 1987 and is the Chief Investment Officer and Head of AllianceBernstein Fixed Income. In this role, he supervises all of the Fixed Income portfolio management and research teams globally. In addition, Peebles is Chairman of the Interest Rates and Currencies Research Review team, which is responsible for setting interest-rate and currency policy for all fixed-income portfolios. He has held several leadership positions within Fixed Income, including director of Global Fixed Income from 1997 to 2004 and co-head of AllianceBernstein Fixed Income from 2004 until 2008. He holds a BA from Muhlenberg College and an MBA from Rutgers University. Location: New York

Joseph Rosenblum

Director—Municipal Credit Research
Joseph Rosenblum is the Director of Municipal Credit Research and a member of the Tax-Exempt Fixed Income Investment Policy Group. Prior to joining the firm in 1990, he spent nine and a half years at Moody’s Investors Service, initially as managing director of Western Regional Ratings and then as vice president and managing director of Customer Services. Rosenblum is a member of the Municipal Analysts Group of New York (and past treasurer and chairman), the National Federation of Municipal Analysts (and formerly served on its Board of Governors) and of the Society of Municipal Analysts. He holds a BA in sociology and urban studies from Brooklyn College and an MCP from Harvard University. Location: New York

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